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Future C2 architectures are being developed with some degree of decentralization to make it harder for opposing forces to find, target, and degrade key C2 nodes. A highly automated, decentralized C2 and data-sharing network however remains beyond reach and without the ability to replace human crews, air forces will remain dependent on centralized legacy systems.

Professor Justin Bronk, Senior Research Fellow, Royal United Services Institute, United Kingdom

Military capability development is a highly complex process, and when it happens in a multinational context, the complexities increase significantly. Militaries manage these complexities using several models, but each model presents trade-offs. The most relevant trade-off is between coordination and political costs on the one hand and economic and military benefits on the other.

Dr. Bence Nemeth, Senior Lecturer, Defense Studies Education, King’s College London, United Kingdom

Information and data-sharing networks are shifting linear decision-making in warfighting to a web of actionable outcomes that can deny, deter, and defeat adversaries. The United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe are all attempting to create a dynamic and adaptive matrix of capabilities to enable real-time, actionable, and predictive analytics for decision-making and C2.

Anika Torruella, Senior Analyst, Janes, United States

Multi-domain operations promise new operational advantages and will reshape air combat, but also necessitate changes in approaches to joint and coalition operations. The challenges of interoperability are reframed however there are no readily available solutions to bridge differences when partner air forces each bring their own sets of capabilities, tools, and platforms to the fight.

Professor Olivier Zajec, Director, Institute of Strategic and Defense Studies, Jean Moulin University, France