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Policy shifts and technological advancements have propelled commercial space activities, outnumbering traditional satellites. Military benefits, including cost savings, hinge on flexible acquisition processes. However, challenges persist, especially in kinetic operations. Adapting requires addressing critical questions about acquisition models and collaboration with commercial providers.

Dr. Jamie M. Morin, Executive Director, Center for Space Policy and Strategy, United States

Sam (Robert) Wilson, Senior Policy Analyst, Center for Space Policy and Strategy, United States

Multi-domain operations rely on the space domain as a ‘make-or-break’ enabler and demand space domain expertise at the field grade level. A new cadre of space specialists must be cultivated to exploit space enablers, and demand that air force leaders generate training requirements and begin to develop career pathways for military space officers.

Peter Garretson, Senior Fellow and Co-Director of the Space Policy Initiative, American Foreign Policy Council, United States

Only the space domain can move information at the speed, size, and range required of an effective JADC2 architecture. If the United States hopes to prevail in a peer conflict, foundational space-based capabilities will be essential. The Department of Defense and the Space Force must prioritize a robust space transport layer, sensors, and space superiority to protect these capabilities.

Tim Ryan, Senior Resident Fellow for Spacepower Studies, Mitchell Institute, United States

The rapid growth of commercial space positions it at the forefront of innovation and activities relating to the expanding use of space. Militaries have much to gain from commercial space as they attempt to unlock the full potential that space-enabled capabilities can provide for military activity, but this will also introduce new dynamics into the competition for dominance.

Dr. Malcolm Davis, Senior Analyst, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Australia

The United States Space Force prioritizes integrating digital tools across its missions, serving as a case study for other space organizations. Their focus areas include Digital Workforce for training, Digital Headquarters for data-driven decisions, Digital Engineering for infrastructure, and Digital Operations for efficiency through automation and AI. This comprehensive approach aims to maximize the effectiveness of space operations through digital transformation.

Charles Galbreath, Senior Resident Fellow for Space Studies, Spacepower Advantage Center of Excellence (MI-SPACE), United States

The space domain will increasingly provide the means for vital military communications and situational awareness at a global scale. With new threats on the horizon, militaries require ‘hardened’ space capability, better space situational awareness and space traffic management, and space systems that can be designed, developed and upgraded at speed.

Patrick Bolder, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Subject Matter Expert, Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, Netherlands